Introduction to Gynecomastia Surgery

Introduction to Gynecomastia Surgery

In this article, I would like to focus on the reasons behind a request that has become increasingly common in the last decade: breast reduction. This might not seem strange until I tell you that the ones making this request are men, and I've noticed a growing trend.

Specifically, individuals seek guidance on understanding if the increased volume and protrusion in the chest are indicative of gynecomastia.

Is Gynecomastia on the Rise?

Gynecomastia refers to the abnormal development of breast size in men. While it has always existed, it has become a more prevalent issue today. There are two main reasons for this:

  1. Lifestyle factors play a significant role and are among the most common causes, as I will explain shortly.

  2. Additionally, and perhaps even more prevalent, is the increased focus on personal appearance. The quest to look good has become an urgent and non-negotiable necessity. Therefore, even the slightest imperfection is noticed and can lead to changes in behavior and interactions with others.

This shift towards an increased emphasis on physical fitness and stereotypical beauty has been notable over the last two decades. The pursuit of perfection, once a prerogative of women, has extended to the male world. Similar to the expectations for a flat abdomen, a toned and dry chest is now a standard. Consequently, any protuberance on a male chest is not considered acceptable.

Moreover, a few decades ago, men generally dressed comfortably in loose-fitting garments that concealed minor imperfections. Today, the slim-fit outfit is an essential part of a modern wardrobe, leaving little room for any flaws.

Identifying Gynecomastia: Starting with Anatomy

The male breast has various origins and degrees of manifestation:

  • From simple fat accumulation defining false gynecomastia or pseudogynecomastia.

  • Progressing to more significant conditions resulting in a true breast with hypertrophic glandular tissue, known as true gynecomastia.

  • In extreme cases, both factors mentioned above are so well represented that the breast becomes very voluminous, akin to the sagging observed in women.

From my perspective, there is no difference in addressing the problem. Or, to put it more accurately, both conditions can be corrected surgically. Once established that surgery is the only path to a stable and lasting result, the next step is to determine the recommended surgery, which varies based on the type of gynecomastia.

  • True gynecomastia is mostly due to hormonal imbalances at some point in life or health issues.

  • Pseudogynecomastia, on the other hand, is mostly caused by excessive weight gain combined with low physical activity, also known as lipomastia.

Primary Physiological Reasons for Gynecomastia

To help you understand whether it is gynecomastia or not, let me begin by stating that before puberty, there is no difference in the male and female mammary gland. It is only during puberty in females that an increase in estrogen production causes various changes in the glandular structure of the breast, leading to the formation of a mature breast.

In males, with the secretion of androgens by the testicles, there should be a cessation of glandular development. However, it can happen that initially, the balance between testosterone and estrogen is not well-established, allowing the gland to continue growing.

This case is known as pubertal gynecomastia, presenting between 14 and 18 years. It is often unilateral, of modest extent, and tends to disappear within a few months. Rarely does it stabilize and become permanent.

In the later stages of life, men can experience an increase in male breast tissue, known as senile gynecomastia. It is more typical in overweight elderly individuals due to reduced free testosterone levels and increased peripheral conversion of estrogen.

Gynecomastia and Pathology

In addition to hormonal imbalances during growth, it is crucial to recognize pathological gynecomastia, which can have endocrine or non-endocrine causes. This distinction relates to whether the issue is tied to the endocrine system, which includes glands responsible for producing and releasing hormones into the body.

  • Among the primary endocrine causes are testicular pathologies, both congenital and acquired, affecting testosterone production.

  • Notable mentions include feminizing adrenal tumors and hyperthyroidism, as they shift the androgen-estrogen ratio in favor of the latter.

  • Other endocrine causes involve rare genetic conditions unrelated to the hormonal system, such as Morris syndrome or androgen insensitivity syndrome. Conditions like Reifenstein syndrome (inadequate response to androgens) and Klinefelter syndrome (presence of an extra X chromosome in males, XXY instead of XY) are severe and rare, with gynecomastia being a secondary concern.

Causes are classified as non-endocrine when the problem is not strictly hormonal.

  • More commonly, gynecomastia is associated with incorrect habits, primarily alcohol abuse and poor nutrition.

  • It could also result from liver pathologies like neoplasms or cirrhosis.

  • Additionally, therapies for renal dysfunction, such as dialysis, can contribute.

  • Other non-endocrine causes include the use of certain medications with high estrogen concentrations, as seen in prostate cancer therapy or transgender treatment.

  • Not to forget the abuse of hormones for enhancing sports performance or muscle growth (doping). These substances suppress natural testosterone production, and when discontinued (or during treatment pauses), the androgen-estrogen balance shifts in favor of the latter, leading to consequential effects.

Therefore, this condition affecting many men can have numerous causes. It is crucial to consider these factors when determining whether what we see is gynecomastia and of which type.


Gynecomastia can have a significant impact on the confidence and self-esteem of those affected, with varying degrees of severity. Sometimes, the reasons behind its occurrence diminish the aesthetic aspect's importance. However, in many cases, it becomes a primary source of discomfort, making its elimination a genuine necessity.

In this article, you have learned about what gynecomastia is and how to recognize it. You now understand how a surgeon's assistance can be fundamental in the lives of those affected. If you wish to delve deeper into the topic, feel free to contact me, and we can discuss it further.

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